Neurons – A briefing – Anatomy and Physiology

Neurons, yay! These little guys respond to electrical excitement! Don’t they just sound like the life of the party? They respond to a change in the environment ( but it has to be powerful enough to start the ball rolling on action potential), this is called a stimulus, and then turn that response into action potential! Action potential is a nerve impulse – an electrical charge that moves all the way along the surface of the membrane of a neuron!
How the hell does it move? Easy! The movement of Na and K, ions, between the interstitial fluid and the inside of a neuron through specific ion channels in its plasma membrane. A nerve impulse travels at the same quick speed through the journey. Some Neurons are really short, and some are super long! like form your waste to your ankle.

Neurons are made up of three parts:

  1. Cell Body (Perikaryon or Soma) contains a nucleus surrounded by cytoplasm
  2. Dendrites (like little trees, there is usually multiple dendrites and only one axon) are the part that receives the signal, the plasma membranes contain reception sites for binding the chemical messages from other cells. Dendrites are usually short but with lot of branches.
  3. Axon (or since there is only one of them usually per neuron – Axis) of a neuron starts the outgoing nerve impulse towards another neuron, gland cell or muscle fibre. An axon is long and thin cylinder shaped, it joins to the cell body at the cone shape (axon hillock), the closes to this part of the axon is called the initial segment. The nerve impulse starts between the axon hillock and the initial segment, this is called the trigger zone. The cytoplasm of the axon, axoplasm, is covered by plasma membranes – axolemma, a bit like a husk. The communication between neurons occurs in the synapse

Now for the interesting bit:

Structural Classification of Neurons:

  • Multipolar neurons: these have lots of dendrites and one axon, mainly the neurons of the brain and spinal cord and all motor neurones fit in this category.
  • Bipolar neurons: one dendrite and one axon, found mainly in the eye, ear and olfactory area of the brain
  • Unipolar Neurons: have some dendrites and one axon that have fused together to become a single process. These ones detect the feeling sensations : touch, pressure, pain or thermal. These can be found in the spinal cord.
    There are is also a functional classification for these neurons too*

Introducing Flower Essences

The other day my friend was making fun of me since I drive in bare feet and was calling me a hippy and telling me it was illegal. WHICH IS A LIE! I googled it, and we all know google doesn’t lie….Anyway so I decided to make a more ‘hippy’ themed post about the amazing things that are classified as Flower Essences.

Flower Essences can be explained bluntly as the process of putting flowers in water, taking them out and mixing that flower water with brandy, but that doesn’t mean anything.
Flower essences affect the body on a mental and emotional level, They are said to work Physically – filtering down into mental aspect. Or work on a mind state and filter down to the physical. Each flower symbolises something and will treat a different symptom. For example the way that flowers are categorised can be by colour, shape, number of petals, all of these factors allude to what they treat.

Flower Essences are produced by imprinting a flower’s unique vibrational healing signature onto the carrier solution and are used to treat imbalances at a higher level, bringing about emotional and spiritual balance and well being in the whole person (ABFE. ND).

Vague example of Bach Flower Remedies:

Dr Edward Bach, 1886-1936, studied medicine and worked in immunology and bacteriology before learning about Homeopathy. From here he started to match the disharmonious states of health to bacteria – specifically mental and emotional conditions that manifest as physical illness.

1930-1936 – The discovery of the flower essences that we use today.

It is thought that the subtle energy from the vibrations of these flower essences are used to realign the emotions that are causing dysfunction. By increasing alignment, greater harmony could occur within the individual as physical aspect combine with the energy – emotional and mental aspect of higher self.

Treatment is very easy since Bach has separated the types so that treatment can be given efficiently. There are 38 Bach Essence Remedies, which restore physical health through correction of underlying emotions.

  • Fear:
    Aspen, Cherry Plum, Mimulus,  Red Chestnut and Rock Rose
  • Uncertainty:

    Cerato, Gentian, Gorse, Hornbeam, Scleranthus and Wild Oat

  • Lack of Interest:

    Chestnut Bud, Clematis, Honeysuckle, Olive, White Chestnut and Wild Rose

  • Loneliness:
    Heather, Impatiens and Water Violet
  • Oversensitivity:
    Agrimony, Centaury, Holly and Walnut
  • Depression/Anguish:
    Crab Apple, Elm, Larch, Mustard, Oak, Pine, Star of Bethlehem, Sweet Chestnut and Willow
  • Worry:
    Beech, Chicory, RockWater, Vervain and Vine.

Australian Bush Flowers Essences (ABFE), ND, Ian White accessed Nov 2013

Bach Center, 2007, The 38 Flower Remedies, Wigmore Publications Ltd, London, Great Britain

Bach Center, ND, viewed 26 November 2013

Cuddles in the Kitchen To Get Things Off The Ground


Hey good looking!

Are you ready for todays babble on health at home?

This will just be a quick post on Kitchen Pharmacy. And all the great things it promotes.


Ok so if we look at different cultures all around the world, the seem to still have the same holidays to mark similar events, for example let’s thing about the coming of winter and the day of the dead. Almost every country has a variation of this… obviously aside form new countries like Asutralia, but think of Obon (japan), Samhain (United Kingdom), Day of the dead (Mexico), Well Food uses are like this too!

It is  (or rather, it was) common/universal knowledge that garlic was an antiseptic.


It’s sad how this great wealth of knowledge has been lost as people more further away from the close connection they had with food.  To me I think the biggest contribution has come mainly from China, as they still have a lot of this in day to day life (eg Lychee is a hot food, not in temperature for anyone who hasn’t had one before), in saying that, the big cities have come to mimic the west (or evolve to something so different from what we actually should be aiming for).

I don’t know if it is still common for people to treat things like :

  • dermatitis,
  • colds,
  • headaches

and other things like these in the home. It seems more people are finding it ‘easier’ to use doctors, herbalists and nutritionist/naturopaths to tell them what is wrong and to fix it.  I believe it must have something to do with the desire for this ‘quick’ fix we have all been lead to believe exists.

We NEED to start taking responsibility for our own health. As a practitioner of medicine (natural or modern) you need to engage your patients to learn and help themselves, Instead of having them reach form supplements or come to you for something that common sense would have once fixed. In saying that, sometime intervention is required but they wont understand how to help themselves unless you can educated them and teach them about prevention, rather than have them repetitively coming back for the same thing.

Food has a huge impact on health, it is my belief that the majority of the deaths now are preventable through the altering of a diet. But sadly  bad habits are hard to break. And food can be addictive.


Let’s stop for a moment and have a quick look at digestion

Digestion starts in the mouth.  With our busy day to day lives, getting the kids ready for school before you rush out the door yourself for a meeting or to be stuck in traffic, it can be hard. Because we are so busy, we forget to chew. You may have to tell yourself and those around you to chew a certain number of times before you swallow.

This specific advice I admit I don’t follow and I really regret it. It can be hard to tell yourself to chew 10-30 times on a mouthful before you swallow.  I know I don’t even think, I chew once and force it down my gullet. As a kid, I believed I could eat more the quicker I ate, and who has time for chewing and starting the digestion process?

Ok so now we are having a quick sticky beak at the stomach, we all are farmiliar with REFLUX! I know it’s horrible! While it is thought to mainly be cause by the

overproduction of hydrochloric acid, It seems to be occurring actually when there is not enough produced. Without enough HCL, it can not break down the food,  which then causes bloating and puts pressure on the sphincter and causes the “reflux”.

Bitter herbs are good for treating this by taking some before a meal, they stimulate digestion – taste and smell.  Try taking a teaspoon of Apple cider vinegar before meals, in water or as a dressing on salad (start off with a teaspoon and work your way up to a tablespoon or what ever ratio works best for you as it can be harsh at first). This should increase digestive juices. Low stomach acid would also cause bloating.
The  Pancreases is releasing pancreatic enzymes into the small intestine(very alkaline, while the Stomach is very acidic.)

What about Constipation?

  • There are a massages which can help aid this, by following the route of the small and large intestine on your tummy, while they lie down on yoru back is thought to get rid of constipation.
  • As well  training your bowls, by sitting on the toilet at the same time of day.
  • People who are constipated tend to be stressed, they are probably really busy and rushing around, you need them to calm down.

Ginger tea is also good for hcl producton in stomach. Broth is good for reflux  (with collagen stired in)

  • Lemon Juice can both stimulate a bowl movement but also stop diarrohea.


Just some things you may want to think about:

  • Someone with low HCL should really considering not drinking with meals. It dilutes the little HCL they have, maybe a sip or two with a meal but it is always best to have either side of meal – just have a break before eating and after eating.
  • If you do have Reflux due to low HCL, maybe try and avoid antacids because if you do have low HCL, you may be making it worse, there is evidence that it may be a histamine response.
  • Playing Trial and error with  foods  can be fun to see if there is a problem, same things that trigger reflux may be: chocolate, alcohol, carminatives, citrus, tomatoes, coffee, salicylate rich foods and smoking.
  • Peppermint can cause reflux by relaxing oesophageal sphincter.
  • Pinnaple and papaya are good for meat digestion because of the enzymes, they break down mucous and also are good for inflammation.
  • Raw cabbage juice can be good for an ulcer of the tummy, as well as honey.

Health does start in the home, as much as it starts on the dinner table, those herbs and food items that sit in the back of your cupboard can really become useful for some simple home fixes.

Skin complaints:


  • Applying  lemon juice and garlic (may sting and dry out skin)
  • Tea tree oil (– dries out postural acne and lavender oil too)
  • Oatmeal and manuka honey mask for 10 min, or egg white with lemon juice  as a mask.
  • Carrot, slippery elm can be good when applied too.

Sun burn

  • Vinegar
  • Yogurt
  • Calendula
  • Chamomile tea
  • Milk
  • Crushed Tomatoes
  • Cold showers, a little warm to take the burn out
  • Green tea
  • Coconut oil
  • Oatmeal



  • Chew on fever few
  • Essential oils on temples, – peppermint and lavender, basil as a herb is also good.
  • Water
  • For dull aching pain and tightness on forehead with tension headache,: apple or apricot juice, chamomile passionflower or valerian tea
  • Liver headache, sick feeling associates, with stress or worry associated: lemon tea, dandelion tea, st Marys thistle
    Pounding headaches (of the whooshhh persuasion), a little coffee can help – results in withdrawal of a different type of headache.

Cold and Flus:

  • Ginger, lemon and garlic tea, with a pinch with chilli or paprika or cayenne pepper(these hot spices promote sweating to result in cooling down).
  • A sage leaf tea can be good
  • No consumption of fats or proteins
  • Partial fasting
  • Rest
  • Chicken soup
  • Cooked veg,
  • Fresh crushed garlic


  • This is a tricky thing, your body is heating up as it attemps to kill of the bacteria, a tempreture in a adult is generally safe until it reaches higher than 40 degrees, if it gets to 24 degrees celcious, saying you’ll have a “Little Problem” is an understatement,
  • With children, the quickest way to bring down a fever is with a cool compress or flannel as paracetamol  takes a while to take effect.
  • Fasting
  • Fluids
  • No consumption of protiens or fats
  • Drink hot fluids or spicy teas to encourage perspiration to bring it down


Food Items and uses:


  • Chop an onion in half an put it next to bed while sleeping  is a traditional method for someone with a cold or small sickness but actually I find it usually works.
  • Onion juice in ear to help earache or garlic juice (just make sure they don’t have a burst ear drum)
  • Poultice for weeping sores


  • Garlic is a natural antibiotic, crush it and eat it immediately is one sure fire way to get rid of that cold that a classmate has tried to give to use.
  • Garlic oil for ear aches and plug with cotton wool. It can be swelly so use an old towel, make sure tympanic (make sure they don’t have a ruptured or perforated ear drum) is in intact other wise NO DEFINATY NOT a good idea!
  • Rub garlic on the bottoms of feet – causes a really bad smell the next day  – with garlic breath, but good for children who don’t like the taste


  • Cabbage leaves can be worn inside bra to relive mastitis (refrigerated leaves, chuck them out when they come to room temp and use new ones)
  • Cabbage promotes a reduce in oestregen related cancer, colon and rectal cancer.


  • Add black pepper to chia tea.
  • Cardamom – cardamom freshens breath .
  • Cayenne  pepper and chillies
  • Cinnamon
  • Turmeric
  • Ginger



We know that when we experience pleasure, our body releases a hormone, so when we eat that food it connects too, that is why their mental wellbeing is important.
Food association or worry eating need to be addressed, it is easier when people just admit they feels stressed, it can be psychosomatic.
When choosing certain foods, it can influence the brain: eg allergies and intolerances, hyperactivity in children. There is a researched strong connection between food and emotional wellbeing.

  • Comfort eating: it is hard to kick,  it is easy to connect to a food for a certain feeling, eg chips or chocolate, if someone is in a lot of pain or depressed these foods can become a sole diet which is when we worry.
  • People have connections to foods from childhood
  • Psychosocial problems:  This is seen greatly in the elderly and immigrants –  due to loneliness and depression, confusion and isolation
  • Addiction:  the affect of an addictive food is not really looked at enough, once you start it is hard to stop, and it is stimulant in the brain


I would love it if you would check out the book: THE END OF OVEREATING, it looks at their addiction created around food. Really a worth while read for anyone facing the dreaded sugar addiction problems head on.


  • Affects of stress and worry on appetite.  Stress, Anxiety or Deppression result in a loss completely of appetite or that person to seek solace in their food and overeat.
  • Celebrating: we reward ourselves with food, eg lollies, or out for an expensive meal when we do a job well done.  Celebration with food CAN be positive but in cases  where lollies and unhealthy foods high in additives as a reward can be negative.
  • In that last point, we know food is a primary reinforcer: strengthens or increases behaviour.
  • Spiritual aspects : religious beliefs eg Ramadan, lent,  or ethical reasons – vegan or vegetarian.  Can all impact our diet and the way we think of food.
  • Social Aspects: when we are young we are influenced by cultural, ethnicity, peer, social, commercial influences  like advertising.
  • Nutritional knowledge, health beliefs, opinions about what aggravate or help medical conditions. Available knowledge at the time, eg coconut oil is healthy today, but in a few years maybe not (or what about the margarine fad where butter was considered bad). Because of social media there are so many peoples opinions without any science, only contradictions everywhere you look. As a student studying this it is hard not to be bombarded by these fads of people only juicing or having a sole liquid diet, then you get people who only eat one colour of foods, it can be really hard with all these people putting in their two bobs worth when they have no real understanding/training of this topic, it is mainly just opinions with no science.
  • Income, availability and convenience influences food choices all affect our interaction with food. eg fast food is convenient, but at least move away from fried foods and towards maybe thai or things that use vegetables.

If anyone is from the Sydney CBD, there is a vegan restaurant called “Hurries” (?) on Broadway, I haven’t personally been, but a friend of mine raves about their $5 lunch specials.

Another new app to hit the world is one called  “LEFT OVER SWAP” the idea is posting the excess food you make and someone will swap with you… To me this is a little dodgy since it is the general public, so maybe just take the idea and organise with friends to do this.

  • Chronic Stress, even if someone has the best diet in the world, if they are producing cortisol instead of digestive enzymes , they wont get anything from their food. You need to work into their lifestyle, not just food choices.

We all know  Loneliness, isolation, grief, bereavement, anger, anxiety, hostility, hopelessness  are emotions that need to be dealth with otherwise they will find a way to manifest themselves on the body.

The phrase of died of a broken heard – actually possible from extreme grief and anxiety – spontaneous heart failure.  So this just reinforces that if you live alone organise with some friends or neighbours in the area to all take turns cooking and sharing a meal together.

Really enjoy the food, have really good quality in small amounts and savour it.

It is my belief that Body weight and eating behaviour were caused by : Self-esteem, emotional issues,  and education.  Children are heavily influenced by parents. Gender, age, parents food consumption, socio economic, education and psychological  are all factors to be taken into consideration when looking at a child’s diet and weight. Who is cooking their meals? Make sure that when you treat young girls, having a food diary can make them overly focuses and lead to anorexia.



Emotional eating has been linked to a higher intake of sugar in girls in one study . Striegel-Moore RH, Morrison JA, Schreiber G, Schumann BC, Crawford PB & Obarzanek E (1999) Emotion-induced eating and sucrose intake in children: the NHLBI Growth and Health Study. Int J Eat Disord 25, 389–398.


Three insights from the positive mind of psychology

Want To Talk About The Magic Of Chamomile?

Botanical Name: Matricaria chamomilla ( previously called Matricaria recutita)

Common Name: German Chamomile or Wild Chamomile

Botanical Family: Matricaria chamomillia belongs to the Asteraceae family.

Parts Used Medicinally: Flower Heads collected at the start of flowering (Simonetti and Pergher et al., 1990) and Blue Oil

Major Constituents:

  • Volatile Oils –Azulene is present (Ganzera and Schneider et al., 2006, pg. 856-861) -Seqquiterpenenes lactones,
  • Flavadoids
  • Mucilage, levels depending on  Polyscaharides
  • Phenolic acids
  • Coumarins (Fisher and Fisher, 2009)


  • Antispasmodic and Anti Inflammatory action (Bauman and Dollemore, 1998)
  • Mild Sedative and a digestion aid  (Simonetti and Pergher et al., 1990)
  • Antibacterial  (Blumenthal and Busse, 1998) and Antimicrobial (Abdoul-Latif and Nabil et al., 2011,)
  • Relaxant (Fisher and Fisher, 2009)
  • Muscletrophic (Blumenthal and Busse, 1998)
  • Diaphoretic
  • Anxiolytic (Reis and Pardo, 2006)

Therapeutic Indications:

Gastro Intestinal Upset:

Matricaria chamomilla has been used traditionally to treat Gastrointestinal upset (Watson, 2009). Tea is brewed and ingested for gastrointestinal ulcers, indigestion, colic, flatulence (Fisher and Fisher, 2009) and Irritable Bowl Syndrome (Blumenthal and Busse, 1998),  Cemek and Buyukokurglu induced gastric mucosal damage in rats to test the effects of Matricaria chamomilla on elemental status in ethanol-intoxicated rats, while further studies are required, this gave evidence that Matricaria chamomilla prevents altercation of minerals that would have been altered due to the ethanol consumption(Cemek, Buyukokurglu, 2009, pg 447).

Analgesic Effect:

In a study done in 2011 by Abad and Nouri  on mice, it found that ‘Matricaria chamomilla hydroalcoholic extract is able to decrease cisplatin-induced pain and inflammation better than morphine’ due to the analgesic effect of the herb. This is further backed up by a study by Sharifi and Simbar in  2013,  on the consumption of Chamomile Extract in tablet form  to reduced the characteristic psychological pains associated during PMS, Chamomile extracted prove to reduce pain more so than those who were taking Mefenamic acid.


It is traditionally used for Inflammation of the Urinary tract and Painful Menstruation (Singh and Khanam et al., 2011).

Reproductive Tract:

In a test done by  Farideh and Bagher in 2010, results showed that extract made from the flower heads of Matricaria chamomilla can induce recovery of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in rats. Matricaria comes from the word womb, so it is not surprising it can be good for many menstrual problems such as menopause tension and morning sickness.

Sedative Effect:

The sedative effect of Matricaria chamomilla can be seen through a study in 2009 that was done by Niederhofer to show the effect of Matricaria chamomilla on ADHD, the results showing that Matricaria chamomilla shows a similar level of improvement as other non-stimulant studies  done by Biederman and Baldessarini, it was also suggested to provide prevention against tics (Niederhofer, 2009). It’s sedative and anxiolytic effect are further supported by a double blind placebo study(Amsterdam and Li et al., 2009, p. 378) which shows a greater reduction in of the mean Anxiety Scores of those with Mild to Moderate Anxiety. In a study done in 2006 by Reis and Pardo it was seen that administering Matricaria chamomilla to cows before exposing them to stress significantly lowered their cortisol levels compared to those not given chamomile.

Antihistamine :

Matricaria chamomilla  is used in the treatment of  many respiratory problems like, asthma, hayfever, and mucosal inflammation.
Matricaria chamomilla extract produces an antihistamine response, as inhibits histamine being released from mast cells (Ch and Rashekhar et al., 2011, pp. 336—340.) A water extract of Matricaria chamomilla tested on rat mast cells when stimulated has shown to inhibit histamine release, it also showed to improve sleep discomfort and decrease cough intensity ( Abou-Moustafa, and Boucher, 2003, pg. 41-54).


External Uses:

The oil can be used on the skin as a muscle relaxant (Viola and Wasowski et al., 1995, pp. 213—216) or as anti-inflammation. (Blumenthal and Busse, 1998). To treat acne, eczema, sunburn, nappy rash and mastitis. The Blue Oil from flower heads is not to be ingested (Wright, 1982).



Matricaria is regarded as a safe herb.

  • Side Affects:

Possible Contact Dermatitis from topical application

When taking chamomile with a meal the intake of iron can be inhibited (Fisher and Fisher 2009)

  • Allergic Reactions:

Allergic reactions may occur if allergies are already known to:

  • Chrysanthermums
  • Asteraceae Family or the Compositae Family (Fisher and Fisher 2009)
  • Artemisia vulgaris (Mugwort)
  • Ragweed
  • Toxicity:
  • Drug Interactions: The absorption of iron is decreased by 45% (Fisher and Fisher, 2009)
  • Pregnancy and Lactation:
    • Toxic levels given to pregnant Rats, Dogs and Rabbits shows a reduction in weight of foetus by a study done in 1979 by Habersang and Leuschner. But in correct dosages no adverse reactions are expected. (Fisher and Fisher, 2009)


  • A tincture can be given three times daily at 1:5, 3-10 mls at 45%, not exceeding 210 mls per week.
  • Fluid extract of 1-4 mls at 45% three times daily, not exceeding more than  84mls per week.
  • Infusion of dried herb of 2-8 grams in 150mls of water three times daily. (Fisher and Fisher 2009)


When combined with Althea officinalis it can sooth intestinal mucosa and reduce sensitivity to irritants,( BHP, 1983, pg 48)

Matricaria chamomilla used along side : extracts of bitter candy tuft, lemon balm leaf, caraway fruit, peppermint leaf, liquorice root, Angelica root, milk thistle fruit and greater celandine herb, is an effective antacid and is equally effective as commercially available products as it lowers gastric acidity and is more effective than commercially available antacid in inhibiting secondary hyperacidity (Watson, 2009)





Reference List

Abad, A., Nouri, M., Gharjanie, A. and Tavakoli, F. 2011. Effect of Matricaria chamomilla Hydroalcoholic Extract on Cisplatin-induced Neuropathy in Mice. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, Issue 9, Volume 2, pg. 126-131

Abou-Moustafa, M.A., Boucher, w., Haggag, E.G., Theoharides, T. (2003) ‘The Effect of Herbal Water Extract on Histamine Release from Mast Cells and on Allergic Asthma’, Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, 3(4), pp. 41-54

Abdoul-Latif, F. M., Nabil, M., Edou, P., Ali, A. A., Djama, S. O., Obame, L., Bassol\’E, I. and Mamoudou, H. 2011. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and methanol extract of Matricaria chamomilla L. from Djibouti. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research,Issue 9, Volume 5, pg. 1512-1517

Ahmad, A. and Misra, L. 1997. Isolation of herniarin and other constituents from Matricaria chamomilla flowers. Pharmaceutical Biology, 35 (2), pp. 121–125.

Al-Ramahi, R., Jaradat, N. and Adawi, D. 2013. Use of herbal medicines during pregnancy in a group of Palestinian women. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 150 (1), pp. 79—84

Amsterdam, J. D., Li, Y., Soeller, I., Rockwell, K., Mao, J. J. and Shults, J. 2009. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy of generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology, 29 (4), p. 378

Avallone, R., Zanoli, P., Puia, G., Kleinschnitz, M., Schreier, P. and Baraldi, M. 2000. Pharmacological profile of apigenin, a flavonoid isolated from Matricaria chamomilla. Biochemical pharmacology, 59 (11), pp. 1387–1394.

Avallone, R., Zanoli, P., Corsi, L., Cannazza, G. and Baraldi, M. 1996. Benzodiazepine-like compounds and GABA in flower heads of Matricaria chamomillaPhytotherapy Research (United Kingdom

Bauman, A. and Dollemore, D. 1998. Natural healing remedies. Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press.

British Herbal Pharmacopoeia (BHP)

Bianco, M. I., L’Uquez, C., De Jong, L. I., Fern’ and Ez, R. A. 2008. Presence of Clostridium botulinum spores in Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) and its relationship with infant botulism. International journal of food microbiology, Issue 121, Volume 3, pg. 357-360.

Biederman, J., Baldessarini, R. J., Wright, V., Knee, D. and Harmatz, J. S. 1989. A double-blind placebo controlled study of desipramine in the treatment of ADD: I. Efficacy. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 28 (5), pp. 777—784

Blumenthal, M. and Busse, W. R. 1998. The Complete German Commission E monographs. Austin, Tex.: American Botanical Council.

CEMEK, M., BÜYÜKOKUROĞLU, M., YILMAZ, E., BÜYÜKBEN, A. and AYMELEK, F. 2009. Effects of Matricaria chamomilla on element status in ethanol-intoxicated rats. Revue Méd. Vét., 160 (10), pp. 443-448. Available at: viewed on the 9th of March 2014

Ch, Rashekhar, V., Halagali, K., Nidavani, R., Shalavadi, M., Biradar, B., Biswas, D., Muchch and I, I. 2011. Anti-allergic activity of German chamomile ( Matricaria recutita) in mast cell mediated allergy model. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 137 (1), pp. 336–340.

Farideh, Z. Z., Bagher, M., Ashraf, A., Akram, A. and Kazem, M. 2010. Effects of chamomile extract on biochemical and clinical parameters in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of Reproduction & Infertility, 11 (3), pg. 169.

Franke, R. and Schilcher, H. 2006. Relevance and use of chamomile (Matricaria recutita.). pg. 29-43.

Fisher, C. and Fisher, C. 2009. Materia medica of Western herbs. Nelson, New Zealand, Vitex Medica.

Ganzera, M., Schneider, P. and Stuppner, H. 2006. Inhibitory effects of the essential oil of chamomile Matricaria recutita and its major constituents on human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Life sciences, 78 (8), pp. 856–861.

Karbalay-Doust, S. and Noorafshan, A. 2009. Antiulcerogenic Effects of Matricaria Chamomilla Extract in Experimental Gastric Ulcer in Mice. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences, Issue 34.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 2014. Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).  Viewed on the 22 of February 2014

Nayak, B. S., Raju, S. S. and Rao, A. C. 2007. Wound healing activity of Matricaria recutita L. extract. Journal of wound care, 16 (7), p. 298

Niederhofer H (2009) Observational study: Matricaria chamomilla may improve some symptoms of attention-deficit hyper activity disorder. Phytomedicine 16:284–286

Presibella, M. M., Villas-B\^Oas, L. D. B., Belletti, K. M. D. S., Santos, C. A. D. M. and Weffort-Santos, A. M. 2006. Comparison of chemical constituents of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert essential oil and its anti-chemotactic activity. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 49 (5), pp. 717–724.

Reis, L. S. L. D. S., Pardo, P. E., Oba, E., Kronka, S. D. N. and Frazatti-Gallina, N. M. 2006. Matricaria chamomilla CH12 decreases handling stress in Nelore calves. Journal of veterinary science, 7 (2), pp. 189—192

Repetto, M. and Llesuy, S. 2002. Antioxidant properties of natural compounds used in popular medicine for gastric ulcers. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research, Volume 35, pg. 523-534.

Salamon, I. 1992. Chamomile: a medicinal plant. The Herb, spice and medicinal plant digest

Sharifi, F., Simbar, M., Mojab, F. and Majd, H. A. 2013. Comparison of the effects of Matricaria chamomile (Chamomile) extract and mefenamic acid on the intensity of premenstrual syndrome.Complementary therapies in clinical practice.

Simonetti, G., Pergher, I. and Schuler, S. 1990. Simon & Schuster’s guide to herbs andspices. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Singh, O., Khanam, Z., Misra, N. and Srivastava, M. K. 2011. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): an overview. Pharmacognosy reviews, 5 (9), p. 82.


Watson, R. R. 2009. Complementary and alternative therapies and the aging population. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, Chapter 8 Health Promoting Benefits of Chamomile in the Elderly Population.

What Should I Be thinking about? – Health

Good Evening Everyone!

After just coming down with a bug, I realized how side tracked I get from looking after myself.

When I’m not at Work, I am at University, and when I am not at those two places I am studying or trying to have a social life.

I must admit, a girlfriend of mine from high school, who I used to rarely see, just broke up with her boyfriend and cam running back into my life wanting attention which I made time for, sacrificing My daily exercise and earlier bed time for. Anyway Over the summer I was working 6 days a week, around 10 hour days, and taking two online classes, Now I am back at University more than full time, taking 6 classes  and working two days a week.

So even though I am strapped for time, now that I am sick and the work is in mountains here are some things you should know about.

1. In Defense of Food by Michael Pollan.

You can check it out HERE. Ok, so why should you check it out?
In my degree, my classmates are constantly telling me that certain foods are bad. And if you listen to talk shows or ‘Health’ podcasts there is a lot of conjecture thrown around. I am just speaking for myself but I have noticed a lot of people I know developing food anxiety. They get so freaked out that everything will kill them or give them cancer. Now these people have me to tell them that their food is fine to eat and that they aren’t going to die from not eating a superfood, you guys don’t.  Michael Pollans book is something I recommend you take a  peek at.

Dont get me wrong, I’m not saying you can eat what ever you want.  I’m saying eat and drink in moderation,  avoid processed foods when you can, but don’t let fear stop you from eating your dairy or meat products.

2. Chemical Maze 

This is  an App you can get on your phone or a book. Check it out HERE. Why do we love it?
I love it because I always read the ingredients and as much fun as playing the game of  ‘Guess what the Numbers mean’ is, I can actually find out what it is, what it causes and how it is used. In my 30 minute break on Monday between classes I ran down to 7/11 to buy an apple, and I just happened to pick up a packet of corn chips and read the ingredients list. I looked at Mission and was impressed, there was like 4-5 ingredients (and it is gf) then I looked at a packet the same size of Doritos… HOLY CRAP! I dare you to read the ingredients and look them up on Chemical Maze.

3. Shop Ethical 

It is an App, click HERE, Why do we dig this?
OK so this isn’t necessary for everyone to check out, but if you are one of those people who cares that their eggs are free range and not just because they are bigger, this is the app for you. Shopping at the supermarket is hard right? Well for people who stay awake at night wondering if your sheets were made ethically LOOK NO FURTHER. 

4. Slow Death By Rubber Duck

This is possibly the number 1 thing I am buying for anyone who likes science. A friend of mine who is doing a science degree, has taken a year off to started a Internship. And what does she get to do? She analyses the toxicity of uses of things like tattoo ink or hair dye. Things that a lot of people have a repeat expose to. Once you start you sometimes don’t stop.
You can check out the book HERE. Now you may ask why I included my anecdote about my friend, well that is simple, this book looks at the effects of repeat expose to everyday items and how it effects our health.

5. Chemical Time Bomb 4 Corners Report.

Why am I looking at this?
Because you want to be aware and not stick your head in the sand.
You can access it HERE. After watching it you may feel a little more inclined to choose Organic Food when you can.


NOW IT IS YOUR TURN TO DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH, Here are some things you may want to take a look at. And remmeber just because you read it does not make it true. When doing a google search, I advise you to use google scholar. 

6.Soak Liver in Vinegar. Is Liver the new Super food

7. Check Out Bliss Balls

8. Jambu – Natural tooth ache treatment and Digestive aid 

Please read up on it before you consume it.

9. Why should you eat your greens rather than add them to smoothies.

Kidney Stones and Oxalic Acid

Here are some sites to make up your own mind : HERE and HERE and HERE and HERE. Just remember only one of these sites is a government Health sites. I encourage you to do your own digging on google scholar and actually read the article. Please don’t believe everything you read on a website. Here are some articles if you are too lazy to do it yourself.
Article 1, Article 2 and Article 3.

10. Phytic Acid – Why we soak Legumes and Grains and use Fermentation 


If Physical Illness was Treated like Mental Illness

Suicide Prevention Australia.

It’s strange that I came across this picture by chance this morning.
I decided four days ago to go cold Turkey on my medication, the last time I tried to do this (two months ago) I lasted 16 days. But this time, words can not describe how sick I was.
When the Nurse asked me why I thought I could just stop, I told her I didn’t want to be just another depressed person… It’s rare now for people to not suffer from a mental illness and that makes me feel so sad that it’s considered normal for kids my age to have:
Drug addictions
(Addictions in general)
Alcohol dependency

I’m not sure if it bothers anyone else. But just think about it, when your parents were growing up, people didn’t understand mental illness. How strong all those people were who had no one to comfort them. We are so so lucky.

Lets talk about what I have been thinking about.

Hey guys, This has been bothering me for a long time. As always, leave me some feedback about your opinions.

While I do think Modern Medicine has really impacted modern herbal medicine, I am still tossing up if it is a good shift. Even though the positives are now that there are studies done on herbs and their uses rather than us just doing what we always have, the down side is in my opinion that many herbs which would show great long term use are being left by the way side since they don’t produce a fast enough result for modern society which expects the treatment to be quick, show results instantly and require the least amount of effort.

Until the field of natural medicine has more funding and allows us to do more studies and have a greater respect I don’t think it will ever be taken as seriously as a profession as orthodox medicine by the general public. Through access to higher qualifications in our chosen fields I think that our treatments of illnesses or herbs that improve general wellbeing will be taken more seriously which means we can do more studies and given more respect. Through the equal view of natural medicine practitioners and other streams of  Orthodox Medicine on the same wavelength.



Anyway enough of my whining….Now For Something You Didn’t Know

From watching Herbalist David Hoffmann’s video (, I have learn that the main aim of Anti-catarrahal is to not dry up mucus, “if we did we would die”, mucous is the lubrication of the body. Golden seal in high doses (10-20 mls straight) can have a drying of mucous effect short term but the after affects can result in a bad headache. The idea is to increase the mucous flow, just that it is more watery in the attempt to shift the old stuff and after the catarrh will be under control, the leaves of the golden rod, eye bright, elder flowers/leaves are some primary herbs that do this. Some herbs that reduce the formation of phlegm  are: Hedera helix, Thymus vulgaris and Grinderlia robusta.