Anatomy and Physiology – Bones – Osteoporosis

So to many of us, the idea of getting old sucks, but what about getting Osteoporosis?


Osteoporosis is a condition that makes bone brittle.


Getting old and being a female is a risk in itself, but having low bone mass – osteopenia, puts the risk for osteoporosis higher. Low bone mass can result in bones breaking due to regular lifestyle wear and tear. It is an interesting note to look at hip replacement failure – there is a higher incidence in patients who are younger since they are generally more physically active.

The effects of of this condition is largely due to a depletion of calcium in the body, it is important to consider the thyroid function. Osteoporosis effects the whole body, not just hips or knees. The Spine can be effected and Osteoporosis can be in play when you see a larger range of elderly people hunched over or through the stereotypical idea that people get shorter as they age – which can be due to osteoporosis.

How might osteoporosis impact on the life of an elderly person?

We all generalise that as people age, they become more frail, but with osteoporosis this is really the case. A simple fall or knock could result in some serious damage being done. Everyday activities can result in a one way trip to hospital, providing they can even make it to a phone if they live alone.

For example if an elderly woman lives alone  and is suffering from Osteoporosis, if she falls and that results in a bone breakage, there may be no way for her to call for help and may become trapped at one end of the house with no way to get assistance. It can really cause a lot of anxiety in sufferers and cause fear to be left alone. Unfortunately this occurs too regularly where an elderly person will suffer a bone breakage and become unable to call for assistance, leaving them reliant on someone to check in on them to alert the hospital and health care services. This is a form of alienation, which can aggravate anxiety and depression in the elderly who may become to feel uncomfortable being alone and performing routine everyday tasks.


30 Entries for 30 Days – Number 10 – Are You Going To Kiss Me Or Not?

Wow.. number 10.
I take my hat off to you for getting through 10 of these very specific posts that could pass as being written by a whinging 14 year old with no sense of spelling, but then again, maybe that is too much credit to myself.

So we made it to Hump Day and no one has died  from listening to the news on the radio, it seems a few people have died and made it on the news, so that is a bit of a bummer.
I think when I die, I want to die of old age in my sleep and happy… Probably a tall order, but I think we can aim for a good long, happy and healthy life for the most part and take it a day at a time from there.

On the topic of death I was listening to a debate between a Nurse, Scientist, Engineer and Naturopath on euthanasia. You know they all seemed to have the same opinion on it, with the same black and white response that it should be legal for people of mental stability in the position of chronic illnesses and old age, the only problem is when it intertwines with mental health. What is your take on Euthanasia?

It’s amazing how quick vets are to suggest Euthanasia for our pets, don’t read into what I’m saying too much, that is not the point. But in the few short visits to the vet in the last few days with my friend and her cat, I was surprised the topic came up twice. This poor cat has cystitis, something some of us may be familiar with, one of the vet’s suggestions first up was to put the cat down. Like it would decrease the cats life quality that much, that killing it was the best option.
I mean, I am all about quality of life, don’t get me wrong, but if you suggest it for a cat that is only 5 who will occasionally get cystitis then I see another that  is 13, obviously in pain, has cancer and arthritis… it is a bit weird.

On the note of Cats. One of the ones I got from Ingleside Animal Welfare League about a month ago pulled a runner two nights ago and I’m absolutely distraught. This poor cat has apparently never been outside, expect in a cat carrier when carried to and from the pound. And she is frightened of everything, so that makes me feel worse.

OK so back to the point and we are going to take a look at how soon is too soon to kiss?

After a lovely phone conversation with my friend, L, from America, I realized that no matter how much I want there to be a standardized rule on ‘How many dates to kiss on, or to have sex on, or how many hours until you can hold hands‘… There just isn’t.

Being a girl is difficult, sure we have periods and bitch fights to deal with, but have you tried to figure out if you come off like a skank or like a prude. Sure the smart thing to say here is

Be yourself

But has anyone, short of the few insanely lucky ones, tried it and found someone who they can’t live without who returns the level of crazy attachment?
You have to be appealing enough to get them to stick around, but not so appealing that they think you are a flirt and an easy f@ck. There is such a thin line.

So back to me, because clearly I cant go more than a paragraph without talking about myself, Cody (Tinder Fling guy) is always teasing me since he thinks I am scared (He doesn’t know that I’m waiting until I know he will stick around, but aye, what can you do) and rarely make a move, but that is the funny thing. When someone has such a poor level of body language how can you know if they are receptive and that my friends is how you end up in a stale mate.

Anatomy and Physiology – Apical Surface Structure Adaptation of Epithelial Cells For Different Functions – Pseudo Stratified Columnar Epithelium

Cells have adaptions to perform functions…. WHAT?

Get To Know What The Hell I’m Talking About:

  • Epithelial Cells cover EVERYTHING, well not really, but it does cover the body surface and lines the hollow organs as well as forming ducts and some other pretty cool things, it can be put into two types: Covering and Lining Epithelium (skin, lining of the blood vessels, ducts and tracts – GI, Urinary, Reproductive and Respiratory) and Glandular Epithelium – thyroid, adrenal and sweat glands .
  • Epithelial Cells are very closely packed and cell junctions make sure that they are securely attached. There is no blood vessels so everything moves by diffusion. Here there is also a super high mitotic rate.
  • These epithelial cells sit on the basement membrane : the  Apical – free surface (top) and the basal surface against the basement membrane (bottom).
    They are classified by their arrangement: Simple(One cell thick), Stratified (two or more layers thick) or Pseudo Stratified (not all the cells reach apical surface but they are touching the basement membrane – nuclei are located at different levels )
    They are also classified by their shape of the surface cells:
    Squamous – flat, Cuboidal – cube shaped, columnar – like columns, transitional – varied shape.

Now that we are on a flat playing field and we all have the basic basic knowledge we can talk further about the cells adaptation for function. While as interesting as it is to know about cell mutations in the body due to adaption, we better save that for another day and focus on The adaption of cells to perform a designated function.

Let’s look at Pseudo Stratified Epithelium –  Ciliated and Columnar :

Epithelial Cells have adapted their surface shape to meet the requirements to perform their function. Pseudo Stratified Epithelium has the nuclei at different levels and appears multi layered and only have the appearance of multiple layers unlike stratified epithelium – which isa actually layered for two or more. These cells are at varied lengths, so not all cells reach apical surface, and those that do will either secrete mucus – goblet cells or have cilia – to sweep away mucus in the Ciliated Columnar Pseudo Stratified Epithelium.  Columnar Cells – protect underlying tissue and are specialised with secretion and absorption (mainly non ciliated columnar) and often have microvilli or cilia.
Ciliated Columnar Pseudo Stratified Epithelium can be found in the respiratory system as well as the epidermis and male urethra. Due to it’s location in the respiratory tract the epithelial cells are adapted so that they can get rid of the foreign particles that get swept in with inhalation.

30 Entries for 30 Days – Number 9 – Good Things Come To Those Who Wait

And we are so back on track with the 25/30 Pathetic Posts for my ‘30 Entries for 30 Days’ challenge, just incase you were worried.

Being myself is usually what I do in order to get guys, I think I am fantastic and usually that is enough to convince them that I am too. But after getting different advice from books and friends, I have decided that while the whole ‘don’t give yourself away’ thing is by far the smartest to avoid getting hurt, but not the smartest if you want to make a connection.

Think about it, when was the last time you were with someone and you instantly connected? Let me guess, it was a whirlwind romance, you wanted to be with each other 24/7, You wanted them to know everything about you and vice versa.
When I entered into dating Cody, the tinder fling, I kept myself private, not intentionally – he just wasn’t into asking questions, and over time I just spill my guts about everything regardless, and he’s getting used to it. In saying that, I think an approach from both angles is best, even if they aren’t asking you questions, sometimes you just have to volunteer information.

Whether a relationship forms is dependent on the two of you, so even if you are incredibly keen on someone, there is a chance it may :

  • A – Blow up in your face
  • B – Be Perfect Until You Realise He/She just Isn’t Interested…
  • C –  He/She will grow to love you

For the record C is soon unlikely, see my previous relationship with Gavin where I pushed it to happen since I was lonely and wanted a lifestyle that he was offering, while ignoring the fact I didn’t actually like him at all.

But what we do know, – no scientific research or statistics were harmed in the making by this assumption, is that guys want to chase, majority of the time, and deep down they generally go for destructive and crazy girls – which ends the relationship pretty quickly. But if you find a guy who just got out of a relationship with a crazy girl… there is a awesomely high chance he has dated other crazy girls before you. So there is my warning.

The vagueness of my advice is to  

  • Put yourself out there
  • Wait until the moments right
  • Respect your self.

I know what you are thinking, How the hell can you do the first two things at the same time?

Well, my suggestion is, if you don’t put yourself out there, you will never have a chance. So throw yourself into it enthusiastically, in saying that don’t rush to have sex or force yourself to feel ‘love’, but if you are both free at the same time, it’s ok to do spur of the moment things. But don’t make him the centre of your world. If you respect yourself he will too, this isn’t about ‘slut shaming’, It’s just my opinion, that if you keep it to yourself that you banged another guy a few night before you met up with this new guy, thats probably a great call.
It’s like being a member of an exclusive club, The harder it is to get, the more people will want it, right? Or at the very least  different type of people. To be fair though, this logic doesn’t always work, I mean sometimes you just find that one person who wants to know all your flaws, mistakes and conquests and will love you regardless… but just think they will probably expect you to love them for theirs too.

That is one thing I am terrible at, as soon as I meet a guy, he instantly becomes my social circle, I forget about my friends.
So much so, that after a quiet night in with Cody I forgot I had my friends coming around for breakfast the next morning and had to introduce them all to him and to make it worse I didn’t even tell him until they were already here. Horrible I know, but he put on a smile and handled it well… Much better than I would have. You would think I would learn from this mornings experience that Cody should not be the centre of my universe, but yet, here I am, rearranging my schedule last minute make sure all my afternoon/evenings are free incase he wants to see me. Can you say Pathetic?  But it is the feeling that I love when you know you are making bad choices because of feelings. 

So I’m just waiting it out, while being out there to get hurt, but still keeping my dignity…. Hope you can tell me what works best for you.

30 Entries for 30 Days – Number 8 – Oh To Be Single

I admit it, I am a lover of being in love,

I jump from one relationship to the next… I broke up with my last boyfriend while traveling together, and within 3 weeks I’m smitten with Cody, the tinder fling.

I know I love to fall in love, so much so that I leave a string of burned men behind until I find a guy who is rebounding and I take the hit the hardest since I don’t fall out of love lust first and then I start the process all over again.

It’s that feeling that is such deep yearning saying:

If I’m not with you, I think I might just die

Ok, so a little exaggerated, but you get my point.

It’s those texts you get that allude to a sense of belonging, I know its lame, but I love that desperate feeling I get when that person is unable to see me. It’s actually so bad, but I love it, to know I think that I care about someone so much… in saying that, I also really love it when I realise it wasn’t love after all…

But after reading an article which you can read HERE, posted on elite daily, I suddenly realise what I am always searching for, perhaps those happy feelings that I am reliant on were actually from myself…

30 Entries for 30 Days – Number 7 – Do I learn from HER mistakes?

And we are back on track today with our sad and pathetic posts about my love life, Yay…

Can you learn from someone else’s mistakes?

Ok well this is a question I think we all face, not just when you are worried about making the same mistakes.

We can observe and try ourselves to not fall for it, but then it is nothing more than a piece of advice. Whether we take notice, is up to us.  

I have a pretty big fear of ruining the potential of a relationship by putting myself out there, but if I don’t, I wont know – this is the philosophy that has governed me for my whole ‘romantic‘ life. I always put myself out there to be hurt since I know how great it is when it goes right, sadly the last time it went wrong to put me on an unintentional war path of self destruction by jumping into relationships with people I didn’t like. But aye, if I need to make the same mistakes again to learn, then clearly they have not made that much of an impact.

This was the drama that I was debating about, asking whether or not he was seeing other people so I know if I should have put all my eggs in one basket, because after meeting him, he ruined casual dating for me, no one is as handsome or funny, sure there are nice guys, but no one so far with the same attraction that I feel for Cody.

It made it clear to me this morning when I woke up to a new drama in my news feed that last nights deliberation was pointless.
Cody, the tinder fling‘s, ex girlfriend had posted this long ass thing about him being a crazy person, well luckily I knew that part, unlucky for me to learn that there was apparently a drug and violence problem thrown in with the mix. Do I take this indirect advice and back off, or wait it out as there is a freaking high chance it is just slander. 
Regardless, is their destructive personalities the reason why they lasted for 2 years? Am I just too normal for him? I feel a bit of Ted Hughes and Sylvia Plath rising to the surface from what I have heard about their relationship.

Can I learn from someone else’s mistakes?

I would say no, no I can’t. It is one of those things I need to do for myself, feel the burn and reel back to start the process over again with another man.
But the fact that, now the seed of doubt floats in my mind has given me perspective, something  that will make me be able to let go instantly if any of it was true, which I didn’t have before. So good job ex girlfriend.  But that does mean the three month timer starts again from today or the next time he brings her up with their drama. It can be hard to watch someone you are suddenly attached to have no obvious signals to show you if they are actually here in the present with you, or if they are reliving their old relationships, just settling in where they left off.

If there was ever a man that does not send off body language, Cody would be one. When I think he is joking, he is serious, when he is serious I mistake it for a joke. Can I pass it off as I’m just not used to this sort of personality? Or are they warning signs that we aren’t a good match?

Anyways thanks for dropping by, feel free to leave a comment if you think I’m being a moron about the situation.

30 Entries for 30 Days – Number 6 – Questioning

Hey guys and gals,  I had a wonderfully huge breakfast down at the beach this morning with my adorable and very innocent cousins and went for a walk along Curl Curl Beach,listening to my youngest cousin talk to reassure a crab (that was dead) which she had found on the middle of the beach, that she would get him home safely. It made me realise that I miss my innocence (She’s 18 by the way) or my ability to ask questions that children do.

When ever there is a silence or a lil in conversation I would watch her, she has this childlike ability to be entertained by anything. After asking about what she will do not that high school is over, I found out she has no real goal about what she wants to do. I suggested travel, but she’s really just to young emotionally speaking. I mean, if I was 18 and had money sitting in my bank account there would be no question about packing up. But she doesn’t want to go, it’s a bit like watching a 3 year old cling to her mothers skirt.

I felt the need after our morning together to write down for you the questions she asked in a three hour period, her words, not mine:

Why is the ocean salty?

“How do freshwater fish become fresh water? Like how do they just become freshwater? And how do they get there?”

“And rocks are weird, they just are, is this like all the rocks there will ever be? or do they just keep on developing?”

How many sand grains are there in the world?