Let’s Talk Crap

Ok Guys, for my Pathology class we have been looking at the pathogens that float around and thrive in unhygienic conditions. Think a little about sanitation.

Have a quick look at This TED talk by Rose George. Let’s Talk Shit. Excuse the word, but I will be blunt and tell you that this is about poo.
Her talk is amazingly informative and I hope you enjoy it as much as I did.


Cuddles in the Kitchen To Get Things Off The Ground


Hey good looking!

Are you ready for todays babble on health at home?

This will just be a quick post on Kitchen Pharmacy. And all the great things it promotes.


Ok so if we look at different cultures all around the world, the seem to still have the same holidays to mark similar events, for example let’s thing about the coming of winter and the day of the dead. Almost every country has a variation of this… obviously aside form new countries like Asutralia, but think of Obon (japan), Samhain (United Kingdom), Day of the dead (Mexico), Well Food uses are like this too!

It is  (or rather, it was) common/universal knowledge that garlic was an antiseptic.


It’s sad how this great wealth of knowledge has been lost as people more further away from the close connection they had with food.  To me I think the biggest contribution has come mainly from China, as they still have a lot of this in day to day life (eg Lychee is a hot food, not in temperature for anyone who hasn’t had one before), in saying that, the big cities have come to mimic the west (or evolve to something so different from what we actually should be aiming for).

I don’t know if it is still common for people to treat things like :

  • dermatitis,
  • colds,
  • headaches

and other things like these in the home. It seems more people are finding it ‘easier’ to use doctors, herbalists and nutritionist/naturopaths to tell them what is wrong and to fix it.  I believe it must have something to do with the desire for this ‘quick’ fix we have all been lead to believe exists.

We NEED to start taking responsibility for our own health. As a practitioner of medicine (natural or modern) you need to engage your patients to learn and help themselves, Instead of having them reach form supplements or come to you for something that common sense would have once fixed. In saying that, sometime intervention is required but they wont understand how to help themselves unless you can educated them and teach them about prevention, rather than have them repetitively coming back for the same thing.

Food has a huge impact on health, it is my belief that the majority of the deaths now are preventable through the altering of a diet. But sadly  bad habits are hard to break. And food can be addictive.


Let’s stop for a moment and have a quick look at digestion

Digestion starts in the mouth.  With our busy day to day lives, getting the kids ready for school before you rush out the door yourself for a meeting or to be stuck in traffic, it can be hard. Because we are so busy, we forget to chew. You may have to tell yourself and those around you to chew a certain number of times before you swallow.

This specific advice I admit I don’t follow and I really regret it. It can be hard to tell yourself to chew 10-30 times on a mouthful before you swallow.  I know I don’t even think, I chew once and force it down my gullet. As a kid, I believed I could eat more the quicker I ate, and who has time for chewing and starting the digestion process?

Ok so now we are having a quick sticky beak at the stomach, we all are farmiliar with REFLUX! I know it’s horrible! While it is thought to mainly be cause by the

overproduction of hydrochloric acid, It seems to be occurring actually when there is not enough produced. Without enough HCL, it can not break down the food,  which then causes bloating and puts pressure on the sphincter and causes the “reflux”.

Bitter herbs are good for treating this by taking some before a meal, they stimulate digestion – taste and smell.  Try taking a teaspoon of Apple cider vinegar before meals, in water or as a dressing on salad (start off with a teaspoon and work your way up to a tablespoon or what ever ratio works best for you as it can be harsh at first). This should increase digestive juices. Low stomach acid would also cause bloating.
The  Pancreases is releasing pancreatic enzymes into the small intestine(very alkaline, while the Stomach is very acidic.)

What about Constipation?

  • There are a massages which can help aid this, by following the route of the small and large intestine on your tummy, while they lie down on yoru back is thought to get rid of constipation.
  • As well  training your bowls, by sitting on the toilet at the same time of day.
  • People who are constipated tend to be stressed, they are probably really busy and rushing around, you need them to calm down.

Ginger tea is also good for hcl producton in stomach. Broth is good for reflux  (with collagen stired in)

  • Lemon Juice can both stimulate a bowl movement but also stop diarrohea.


Just some things you may want to think about:

  • Someone with low HCL should really considering not drinking with meals. It dilutes the little HCL they have, maybe a sip or two with a meal but it is always best to have either side of meal – just have a break before eating and after eating.
  • If you do have Reflux due to low HCL, maybe try and avoid antacids because if you do have low HCL, you may be making it worse, there is evidence that it may be a histamine response.
  • Playing Trial and error with  foods  can be fun to see if there is a problem, same things that trigger reflux may be: chocolate, alcohol, carminatives, citrus, tomatoes, coffee, salicylate rich foods and smoking.
  • Peppermint can cause reflux by relaxing oesophageal sphincter.
  • Pinnaple and papaya are good for meat digestion because of the enzymes, they break down mucous and also are good for inflammation.
  • Raw cabbage juice can be good for an ulcer of the tummy, as well as honey.

Health does start in the home, as much as it starts on the dinner table, those herbs and food items that sit in the back of your cupboard can really become useful for some simple home fixes.

Skin complaints:


  • Applying  lemon juice and garlic (may sting and dry out skin)
  • Tea tree oil (– dries out postural acne and lavender oil too)
  • Oatmeal and manuka honey mask for 10 min, or egg white with lemon juice  as a mask.
  • Carrot, slippery elm can be good when applied too.

Sun burn

  • Vinegar
  • Yogurt
  • Calendula
  • Chamomile tea
  • Milk
  • Crushed Tomatoes
  • Cold showers, a little warm to take the burn out
  • Green tea
  • Coconut oil
  • Oatmeal



  • Chew on fever few
  • Essential oils on temples, – peppermint and lavender, basil as a herb is also good.
  • Water
  • For dull aching pain and tightness on forehead with tension headache,: apple or apricot juice, chamomile passionflower or valerian tea
  • Liver headache, sick feeling associates, with stress or worry associated: lemon tea, dandelion tea, st Marys thistle
    Pounding headaches (of the whooshhh persuasion), a little coffee can help – results in withdrawal of a different type of headache.

Cold and Flus:

  • Ginger, lemon and garlic tea, with a pinch with chilli or paprika or cayenne pepper(these hot spices promote sweating to result in cooling down).
  • A sage leaf tea can be good
  • No consumption of fats or proteins
  • Partial fasting
  • Rest
  • Chicken soup
  • Cooked veg,
  • Fresh crushed garlic


  • This is a tricky thing, your body is heating up as it attemps to kill of the bacteria, a tempreture in a adult is generally safe until it reaches higher than 40 degrees, if it gets to 24 degrees celcious, saying you’ll have a “Little Problem” is an understatement,
  • With children, the quickest way to bring down a fever is with a cool compress or flannel as paracetamol  takes a while to take effect.
  • Fasting
  • Fluids
  • No consumption of protiens or fats
  • Drink hot fluids or spicy teas to encourage perspiration to bring it down


Food Items and uses:


  • Chop an onion in half an put it next to bed while sleeping  is a traditional method for someone with a cold or small sickness but actually I find it usually works.
  • Onion juice in ear to help earache or garlic juice (just make sure they don’t have a burst ear drum)
  • Poultice for weeping sores


  • Garlic is a natural antibiotic, crush it and eat it immediately is one sure fire way to get rid of that cold that a classmate has tried to give to use.
  • Garlic oil for ear aches and plug with cotton wool. It can be swelly so use an old towel, make sure tympanic (make sure they don’t have a ruptured or perforated ear drum) is in intact other wise NO DEFINATY NOT a good idea!
  • Rub garlic on the bottoms of feet – causes a really bad smell the next day  – with garlic breath, but good for children who don’t like the taste


  • Cabbage leaves can be worn inside bra to relive mastitis (refrigerated leaves, chuck them out when they come to room temp and use new ones)
  • Cabbage promotes a reduce in oestregen related cancer, colon and rectal cancer.


  • Add black pepper to chia tea.
  • Cardamom – cardamom freshens breath .
  • Cayenne  pepper and chillies
  • Cinnamon
  • Turmeric
  • Ginger



We know that when we experience pleasure, our body releases a hormone, so when we eat that food it connects too, that is why their mental wellbeing is important.
Food association or worry eating need to be addressed, it is easier when people just admit they feels stressed, it can be psychosomatic.
When choosing certain foods, it can influence the brain: eg allergies and intolerances, hyperactivity in children. There is a researched strong connection between food and emotional wellbeing.

  • Comfort eating: it is hard to kick,  it is easy to connect to a food for a certain feeling, eg chips or chocolate, if someone is in a lot of pain or depressed these foods can become a sole diet which is when we worry.
  • People have connections to foods from childhood
  • Psychosocial problems:  This is seen greatly in the elderly and immigrants –  due to loneliness and depression, confusion and isolation
  • Addiction:  the affect of an addictive food is not really looked at enough, once you start it is hard to stop, and it is stimulant in the brain


I would love it if you would check out the book: THE END OF OVEREATING, it looks at their addiction created around food. Really a worth while read for anyone facing the dreaded sugar addiction problems head on.


  • Affects of stress and worry on appetite.  Stress, Anxiety or Deppression result in a loss completely of appetite or that person to seek solace in their food and overeat.
  • Celebrating: we reward ourselves with food, eg lollies, or out for an expensive meal when we do a job well done.  Celebration with food CAN be positive but in cases  where lollies and unhealthy foods high in additives as a reward can be negative.
  • In that last point, we know food is a primary reinforcer: strengthens or increases behaviour.
  • Spiritual aspects : religious beliefs eg Ramadan, lent,  or ethical reasons – vegan or vegetarian.  Can all impact our diet and the way we think of food.
  • Social Aspects: when we are young we are influenced by cultural, ethnicity, peer, social, commercial influences  like advertising.
  • Nutritional knowledge, health beliefs, opinions about what aggravate or help medical conditions. Available knowledge at the time, eg coconut oil is healthy today, but in a few years maybe not (or what about the margarine fad where butter was considered bad). Because of social media there are so many peoples opinions without any science, only contradictions everywhere you look. As a student studying this it is hard not to be bombarded by these fads of people only juicing or having a sole liquid diet, then you get people who only eat one colour of foods, it can be really hard with all these people putting in their two bobs worth when they have no real understanding/training of this topic, it is mainly just opinions with no science.
  • Income, availability and convenience influences food choices all affect our interaction with food. eg fast food is convenient, but at least move away from fried foods and towards maybe thai or things that use vegetables.

If anyone is from the Sydney CBD, there is a vegan restaurant called “Hurries” (?) on Broadway, I haven’t personally been, but a friend of mine raves about their $5 lunch specials.

Another new app to hit the world is one called  “LEFT OVER SWAP” the idea is posting the excess food you make and someone will swap with you… To me this is a little dodgy since it is the general public, so maybe just take the idea and organise with friends to do this.

  • Chronic Stress, even if someone has the best diet in the world, if they are producing cortisol instead of digestive enzymes , they wont get anything from their food. You need to work into their lifestyle, not just food choices.

We all know  Loneliness, isolation, grief, bereavement, anger, anxiety, hostility, hopelessness  are emotions that need to be dealth with otherwise they will find a way to manifest themselves on the body.

The phrase of died of a broken heard – actually possible from extreme grief and anxiety – spontaneous heart failure.  So this just reinforces that if you live alone organise with some friends or neighbours in the area to all take turns cooking and sharing a meal together.

Really enjoy the food, have really good quality in small amounts and savour it.

It is my belief that Body weight and eating behaviour were caused by : Self-esteem, emotional issues,  and education.  Children are heavily influenced by parents. Gender, age, parents food consumption, socio economic, education and psychological  are all factors to be taken into consideration when looking at a child’s diet and weight. Who is cooking their meals? Make sure that when you treat young girls, having a food diary can make them overly focuses and lead to anorexia.



Emotional eating has been linked to a higher intake of sugar in girls in one study . Striegel-Moore RH, Morrison JA, Schreiber G, Schumann BC, Crawford PB & Obarzanek E (1999) Emotion-induced eating and sucrose intake in children: the NHLBI Growth and Health Study. Int J Eat Disord 25, 389–398.


Three insights from the positive mind of psychology http://greatergood.berkley.edu

Cauliflower Pizza?

Hey guys,

It has been ages since I did a food post, so here is something wonderful. I have been doing this for a while now but only after seeing a post on Cauliflower Rice ( from stepheusebi.com) did I realizes other people may actually not know how to do this.

What do you need?

  • A cauliflower – may be helpful ( I usually use about 1/3 to a  half for each pizza base )
  • Parmesan cheese
  • 1 average sized sweet potato
  • 3/4 of a red onion (you can use less, I just really like it)
  • Bacon! ( I used two massive pieces and just chop it up)
  • tomato paste/ pizza sauce.
  • three cloves of garlic


Preheat over to 180 degreesC

So you get your cauliflower (always organic preferred), take off the leaves and start to hack the cauliflower up (anything that isn’t a green leaf ).

You kind of want it to be small enough so when you put it in a food processor (I use a Thermomix on speed 8 until it is tiny – like rice) it can all be done and not have huge chuncks


Ok so now what you want to do is put all your cauliflower ‘rice’  in a big bowl and set aside for a second. Peel garlic and chop up Parmesan to manageable chunks for the food processor to handle.

In the same food processor (because who has time to wash), put in chunks of Parmesan cheese and whiz around until nice and fine, add three cloves of garlic and whiz again.



Crack in an organic egg into the cauliflower  and add some of the cheese, about 1/4, mix it all up.

Prepare a pizza tray or what ever you cook cookie on, lay down some baking paper  on it.

Tip the cauliflower-egg combination onto the baking paper and flatten it out, you can make a circle (like a normal pizza), or you can do what I normally do, make a huge rectangle.


Put this awesomely made pizza base in the oven on the top shelf while you chop up everything else.

Thinly slice the red onion into slivers.

With a peeler, peel off the outer skin of the sweet potato (only if you have an aversion to the skin, otherwise just give the sweet potato a scrub under running water). and start peeling strips (like ribbons) of sweet potato.

Chop up the bacon finely.


When you pizza base is starting to turn a shade darker (It usually is perfect to pull out after about 8 minutes in my hectically cool oven), pull it out and put it on a heatproof protector so your bench doesn’t crack.

With the back of a spoon, finger or knife spread the tomato paste/pizza sauce all over the base, now be careful not to push down, the cauliflower base can come up if it gets stuck to the back of your spoon.

Sprinkle  a 1/3 of the remaining cheese and garlic

toss on the sweet potato ribbons, onion and add some more of that cheesy mix and add the pieces of bacon.

Whack it back in the oven and check on it over a period of 20 minutes, usually the amount of time it takes me to set up a dvd on the tv. I have found that sometimes, depending on how full the pizza is and how thick the base is it can vary in time so keep an eye on it.



Want To Talk About The Magic Of Chamomile?

Botanical Name: Matricaria chamomilla ( previously called Matricaria recutita)

Common Name: German Chamomile or Wild Chamomile

Botanical Family: Matricaria chamomillia belongs to the Asteraceae family.

Parts Used Medicinally: Flower Heads collected at the start of flowering (Simonetti and Pergher et al., 1990) and Blue Oil

Major Constituents:

  • Volatile Oils –Azulene is present (Ganzera and Schneider et al., 2006, pg. 856-861) -Seqquiterpenenes lactones,
  • Flavadoids
  • Mucilage, levels depending on  Polyscaharides
  • Phenolic acids
  • Coumarins (Fisher and Fisher, 2009)


  • Antispasmodic and Anti Inflammatory action (Bauman and Dollemore, 1998)
  • Mild Sedative and a digestion aid  (Simonetti and Pergher et al., 1990)
  • Antibacterial  (Blumenthal and Busse, 1998) and Antimicrobial (Abdoul-Latif and Nabil et al., 2011,)
  • Relaxant (Fisher and Fisher, 2009)
  • Muscletrophic (Blumenthal and Busse, 1998)
  • Diaphoretic
  • Anxiolytic (Reis and Pardo, 2006)

Therapeutic Indications:

Gastro Intestinal Upset:

Matricaria chamomilla has been used traditionally to treat Gastrointestinal upset (Watson, 2009). Tea is brewed and ingested for gastrointestinal ulcers, indigestion, colic, flatulence (Fisher and Fisher, 2009) and Irritable Bowl Syndrome (Blumenthal and Busse, 1998),  Cemek and Buyukokurglu induced gastric mucosal damage in rats to test the effects of Matricaria chamomilla on elemental status in ethanol-intoxicated rats, while further studies are required, this gave evidence that Matricaria chamomilla prevents altercation of minerals that would have been altered due to the ethanol consumption(Cemek, Buyukokurglu, 2009, pg 447).

Analgesic Effect:

In a study done in 2011 by Abad and Nouri  on mice, it found that ‘Matricaria chamomilla hydroalcoholic extract is able to decrease cisplatin-induced pain and inflammation better than morphine’ due to the analgesic effect of the herb. This is further backed up by a study by Sharifi and Simbar in  2013,  on the consumption of Chamomile Extract in tablet form  to reduced the characteristic psychological pains associated during PMS, Chamomile extracted prove to reduce pain more so than those who were taking Mefenamic acid.


It is traditionally used for Inflammation of the Urinary tract and Painful Menstruation (Singh and Khanam et al., 2011).

Reproductive Tract:

In a test done by  Farideh and Bagher in 2010, results showed that extract made from the flower heads of Matricaria chamomilla can induce recovery of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in rats. Matricaria comes from the word womb, so it is not surprising it can be good for many menstrual problems such as menopause tension and morning sickness.

Sedative Effect:

The sedative effect of Matricaria chamomilla can be seen through a study in 2009 that was done by Niederhofer to show the effect of Matricaria chamomilla on ADHD, the results showing that Matricaria chamomilla shows a similar level of improvement as other non-stimulant studies  done by Biederman and Baldessarini, it was also suggested to provide prevention against tics (Niederhofer, 2009). It’s sedative and anxiolytic effect are further supported by a double blind placebo study(Amsterdam and Li et al., 2009, p. 378) which shows a greater reduction in of the mean Anxiety Scores of those with Mild to Moderate Anxiety. In a study done in 2006 by Reis and Pardo it was seen that administering Matricaria chamomilla to cows before exposing them to stress significantly lowered their cortisol levels compared to those not given chamomile.

Antihistamine :

Matricaria chamomilla  is used in the treatment of  many respiratory problems like, asthma, hayfever, and mucosal inflammation.
Matricaria chamomilla extract produces an antihistamine response, as inhibits histamine being released from mast cells (Ch and Rashekhar et al., 2011, pp. 336—340.) A water extract of Matricaria chamomilla tested on rat mast cells when stimulated has shown to inhibit histamine release, it also showed to improve sleep discomfort and decrease cough intensity ( Abou-Moustafa, and Boucher, 2003, pg. 41-54).


External Uses:

The oil can be used on the skin as a muscle relaxant (Viola and Wasowski et al., 1995, pp. 213—216) or as anti-inflammation. (Blumenthal and Busse, 1998). To treat acne, eczema, sunburn, nappy rash and mastitis. The Blue Oil from flower heads is not to be ingested (Wright, 1982).



Matricaria is regarded as a safe herb.

  • Side Affects:

Possible Contact Dermatitis from topical application

When taking chamomile with a meal the intake of iron can be inhibited (Fisher and Fisher 2009)

  • Allergic Reactions:

Allergic reactions may occur if allergies are already known to:

  • Chrysanthermums
  • Asteraceae Family or the Compositae Family (Fisher and Fisher 2009)
  • Artemisia vulgaris (Mugwort)
  • Ragweed
  • Toxicity:
  • Drug Interactions: The absorption of iron is decreased by 45% (Fisher and Fisher, 2009)
  • Pregnancy and Lactation:
    • Toxic levels given to pregnant Rats, Dogs and Rabbits shows a reduction in weight of foetus by a study done in 1979 by Habersang and Leuschner. But in correct dosages no adverse reactions are expected. (Fisher and Fisher, 2009)


  • A tincture can be given three times daily at 1:5, 3-10 mls at 45%, not exceeding 210 mls per week.
  • Fluid extract of 1-4 mls at 45% three times daily, not exceeding more than  84mls per week.
  • Infusion of dried herb of 2-8 grams in 150mls of water three times daily. (Fisher and Fisher 2009)


When combined with Althea officinalis it can sooth intestinal mucosa and reduce sensitivity to irritants,( BHP, 1983, pg 48)

Matricaria chamomilla used along side : extracts of bitter candy tuft, lemon balm leaf, caraway fruit, peppermint leaf, liquorice root, Angelica root, milk thistle fruit and greater celandine herb, is an effective antacid and is equally effective as commercially available products as it lowers gastric acidity and is more effective than commercially available antacid in inhibiting secondary hyperacidity (Watson, 2009)





Reference List

Abad, A., Nouri, M., Gharjanie, A. and Tavakoli, F. 2011. Effect of Matricaria chamomilla Hydroalcoholic Extract on Cisplatin-induced Neuropathy in Mice. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, Issue 9, Volume 2, pg. 126-131

Abou-Moustafa, M.A., Boucher, w., Haggag, E.G., Theoharides, T. (2003) ‘The Effect of Herbal Water Extract on Histamine Release from Mast Cells and on Allergic Asthma’, Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, 3(4), pp. 41-54

Abdoul-Latif, F. M., Nabil, M., Edou, P., Ali, A. A., Djama, S. O., Obame, L., Bassol\’E, I. and Mamoudou, H. 2011. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and methanol extract of Matricaria chamomilla L. from Djibouti. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research,Issue 9, Volume 5, pg. 1512-1517

Ahmad, A. and Misra, L. 1997. Isolation of herniarin and other constituents from Matricaria chamomilla flowers. Pharmaceutical Biology, 35 (2), pp. 121–125.

Al-Ramahi, R., Jaradat, N. and Adawi, D. 2013. Use of herbal medicines during pregnancy in a group of Palestinian women. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 150 (1), pp. 79—84

Amsterdam, J. D., Li, Y., Soeller, I., Rockwell, K., Mao, J. J. and Shults, J. 2009. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy of generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology, 29 (4), p. 378

Avallone, R., Zanoli, P., Puia, G., Kleinschnitz, M., Schreier, P. and Baraldi, M. 2000. Pharmacological profile of apigenin, a flavonoid isolated from Matricaria chamomilla. Biochemical pharmacology, 59 (11), pp. 1387–1394.

Avallone, R., Zanoli, P., Corsi, L., Cannazza, G. and Baraldi, M. 1996. Benzodiazepine-like compounds and GABA in flower heads of Matricaria chamomillaPhytotherapy Research (United Kingdom

Bauman, A. and Dollemore, D. 1998. Natural healing remedies. Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press.

British Herbal Pharmacopoeia (BHP)

Bianco, M. I., L’Uquez, C., De Jong, L. I., Fern’ and Ez, R. A. 2008. Presence of Clostridium botulinum spores in Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) and its relationship with infant botulism. International journal of food microbiology, Issue 121, Volume 3, pg. 357-360.

Biederman, J., Baldessarini, R. J., Wright, V., Knee, D. and Harmatz, J. S. 1989. A double-blind placebo controlled study of desipramine in the treatment of ADD: I. Efficacy. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 28 (5), pp. 777—784

Blumenthal, M. and Busse, W. R. 1998. The Complete German Commission E monographs. Austin, Tex.: American Botanical Council.

CEMEK, M., BÜYÜKOKUROĞLU, M., YILMAZ, E., BÜYÜKBEN, A. and AYMELEK, F. 2009. Effects of Matricaria chamomilla on element status in ethanol-intoxicated rats. Revue Méd. Vét., 160 (10), pp. 443-448. Available at: http://www.revmedvet.com/2009/RMV160_443_448.pdf. viewed on the 9th of March 2014

Ch, Rashekhar, V., Halagali, K., Nidavani, R., Shalavadi, M., Biradar, B., Biswas, D., Muchch and I, I. 2011. Anti-allergic activity of German chamomile ( Matricaria recutita) in mast cell mediated allergy model. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 137 (1), pp. 336–340.

Farideh, Z. Z., Bagher, M., Ashraf, A., Akram, A. and Kazem, M. 2010. Effects of chamomile extract on biochemical and clinical parameters in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of Reproduction & Infertility, 11 (3), pg. 169.

Franke, R. and Schilcher, H. 2006. Relevance and use of chamomile (Matricaria recutita.). pg. 29-43.

Fisher, C. and Fisher, C. 2009. Materia medica of Western herbs. Nelson, New Zealand, Vitex Medica.

Ganzera, M., Schneider, P. and Stuppner, H. 2006. Inhibitory effects of the essential oil of chamomile Matricaria recutita and its major constituents on human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Life sciences, 78 (8), pp. 856–861.

Karbalay-Doust, S. and Noorafshan, A. 2009. Antiulcerogenic Effects of Matricaria Chamomilla Extract in Experimental Gastric Ulcer in Mice. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences, Issue 34.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 2014. Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tourette/detail_tourette.htm  Viewed on the 22 of February 2014

Nayak, B. S., Raju, S. S. and Rao, A. C. 2007. Wound healing activity of Matricaria recutita L. extract. Journal of wound care, 16 (7), p. 298

Niederhofer H (2009) Observational study: Matricaria chamomilla may improve some symptoms of attention-deficit hyper activity disorder. Phytomedicine 16:284–286

Presibella, M. M., Villas-B\^Oas, L. D. B., Belletti, K. M. D. S., Santos, C. A. D. M. and Weffort-Santos, A. M. 2006. Comparison of chemical constituents of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert essential oil and its anti-chemotactic activity. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 49 (5), pp. 717–724.

Reis, L. S. L. D. S., Pardo, P. E., Oba, E., Kronka, S. D. N. and Frazatti-Gallina, N. M. 2006. Matricaria chamomilla CH12 decreases handling stress in Nelore calves. Journal of veterinary science, 7 (2), pp. 189—192

Repetto, M. and Llesuy, S. 2002. Antioxidant properties of natural compounds used in popular medicine for gastric ulcers. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research, Volume 35, pg. 523-534.

Salamon, I. 1992. Chamomile: a medicinal plant. The Herb, spice and medicinal plant digest

Sharifi, F., Simbar, M., Mojab, F. and Majd, H. A. 2013. Comparison of the effects of Matricaria chamomile (Chamomile) extract and mefenamic acid on the intensity of premenstrual syndrome.Complementary therapies in clinical practice.

Simonetti, G., Pergher, I. and Schuler, S. 1990. Simon & Schuster’s guide to herbs andspices. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Singh, O., Khanam, Z., Misra, N. and Srivastava, M. K. 2011. Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): an overview. Pharmacognosy reviews, 5 (9), p. 82.


Watson, R. R. 2009. Complementary and alternative therapies and the aging population. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, Chapter 8 Health Promoting Benefits of Chamomile in the Elderly Population.

Histology of Gastro Intestinal Tract – Small Intestine

Gastro Intestinal Tract – Small Intestine

The small intestine is split into three sections: duodenum , jejunum and ileum. It starts at the

Pyloric Sphincter and continues until it merges with the Jejunum. The function of the small

intestine is to digest and absorb (Slomianka, 2014).

According to Columbia CNMTL Histology Laboratory Manual and Tortora and Derrickson,

the Concentric coats of the small intestine, from the lumen out are:

1. Mucosa

o Epithelium

o Lamina propria (a thin layer of loose Connective Tissue)

o Muscularis mucosa

2. Submucosa

o Dense Connective Tissue

3. Muscularis

o Connective Tissue containing nerves + Blood vessels sandwiched between a layer of

smooth muscle either side. With a outermost layer, Serosa. (General Biology Lab

Rutgers EDU. 2014)

4. Serosa

o Connective Tissue

Connective Tissue Arrangement:

• The connective tissue is in the submucosa, with the mucosa between it and

the lumen(Columbia CNMTL Histology Laboratory Manual, 2014).

• Some Loose Connective Tissue is in the core of the Villi (The Human Protein

Atlas, 2014).

• In the ileum division, in the submucosa there are Collagen Fibres, dense

connective tissue (A Website for Human Anatomy and Physiology, 2014).

Epithelial Tissue Arrangement:

• The Villi are lined with columnar epithelial cells (The Human Protein Atlas,

2014). Villi projects into the lumen. This is part of the Mucosa, it is also made

up of:

o Goblet Cells – mucous secreting epithelial cells.

o As well as Enterocytes, Paneth cells, Enteroendocrine cells , M cells

and Undifferentiated cells. (General Biology Lab Rutgers EDU, 2014).

Other Tissues Relevant:

• Smooth muscle Tissue makes up the muscularis. The muscularis has an

inner layer of circular smooth muscle and an outer layer of longitudinal

smooth muscle, and a outermost layer of visceral peritoneum or Serosa

(Connective tissue) (General Biology Lab Rutgers EDU. 2014).

Other Features Relevant:

• Pilicae Circulares are fold of mucosa and submucosa which increase the

surface area(Slomianka, 2014).

• Crypts: secrete intestinal juices, hold cells to regenerate the epithelium and

Paneth, which release antibacterial substances (Slomianka, 2014).

• According to Tortora and Derrickson, submucosa secrete alkaline mucous to

combat the gastric acid in the chime from the duodenal glands.

How does the Structure of the cells/ tissues link to the function of the Small


The small intestine is adapted to absorb and digest as it is so long, (Tortora and Derrickson.

2013.) but to increase the surface area it has other features such as:

• Villi and the Pilicae both provide extra surface area for the digestion and

absorption process. The Villi in the intestine are using in absorption, while in

the stomach they secrete mucous (Columbia CNMTL Histology Laboratory

Manual, 2014).

• The Epithelial Cell arrangement works with the function of the small intestine

of digesting an absorbing nutrients, as it creates a larger surface area for this

to occur (Tortora and Derrickson, 2013).

• The Enterocytes are absorption cells, and absorbing is one of the functions of

the Small Intestine.

Connective Tissue in the Submucosa Layer:

• The Collagen Fibres in the Submucosa give structural strength (A Website for

Human Anatomy and Physiology, 2014).



A Website for Human Anatomy and Physiology. 2014. Dense Irregular 1.

http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/aplab/Lab-Unit-02/Lab-02-10.html Viewed on the 11th of February


Columbia CNMTL Histology Laboratory Manual. 2014. Histology Laboratory Manual: Small

Intestine. http://histologylab.ccnmtl.columbia.edu/lab13/small_intestine.html Viewed on the

11th of February 2014

Gallik, S. 2014. Chapter 7, Page 11 – HistologyOLM 4.0.


.html Viewed on the 10th of February 2014

General Biology Lab Rutgers EDU. 2014. Tissues of the Small Intestine.

http://bio.rutgers.edu/~gb102/lab_9/904dm-amphiuma.html Viewed on the 11th of February


MD, E. 2014. Organ System Pathology.

http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/ORGAN.html#2 Viewed on the 11th of February 2014

My Virtual Medical Centre. 2006. Gastrointestinal System – myVirtual Medical Centre.

http://www.myvmc.com/anatomy/gastrointestinal-system/#C7 Viewed on the 11th of

February 2014

Slomianka, L. 2014. Blue Histology – Gastrointestinal Tract.

http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/CorePages/GIT/git.htm#topicsmallintestine Viewed

on the 11th of February 2014.

The Human Protein Atlas. 2014. Dictionary Small Intestine.

http://www.proteinatlas.org/dictionary/normal/small+intestine Viewed on the 11th of

February 2014

Tortora, G. J. and Derrickson, B. 2013. Principles of anatomy & physiology. Hoboken, NJ:


University of Michigan Medical School. 2014. Connective Tissue: Medical Histology

and Virtual Microscopy: University of Michigan.

http://www.med.umich.edu/histology/cellsTissue/connectiveTissue.html Viewed on the 12th

of February 2014

University of Ottawa Medicine Histology Course Web. 2014. The Small Intestine.


English/Gastrointestinal/gastro_small_intest.htm Viewed on the 10th of February


Wwwmgs.bionet.nsc.ru. 2014. Small Intestine.

http://wwwmgs.bionet.nsc.ru/mgs/gnw/trrd/thesaurus/Di/small.html Viewed on the 12th of

February 2014.

The Cell Tissues under the Microscope


The Cell Tissues under the Microscope

Muscular Tissues:

i. The tissue displayed is Cardiac Muscle. This tissues actions are involuntary. Its

visible features:

• The Nucleus,

• Intercalated discs

• Striations

ii. The tissue depicted is the Smooth Muscle. Its features are:

• It appears non striated

• Nucleus is visible

• Cells are shaped like spindles (Interactive Physiology, 2014

Its action is involuntary like the cardiac Muscle. Both of these are controlled

by neurons (part of the autonomic division of the NS) and by hormones

released by the endocrine glands. (Tortora and Derrickson, 2013)

iii. The tissue depicted is the skeletal Muscle. Cylindrical and single with clear

striation. Two major intracellular (Sarcomere) features

• The centre of the sarcomere is where the proteins that hold thick filaments

together are. (M line inside the H zone) (Uniprot Subcellular Locations,


• The A band, the dark sections either side of the H zone has thick and thin

filaments overlapping, causing the dark colour (Tortora and Derrickson,


Nervous Tissues:

The cells in the Nervous System are made up mainly of: Neurons and Neuroglia

i. The image is a transverse section of the spinal cord, from the Central Nervous

System, (Histology OLM, 2014) Grey (eg. Neuronal soma, dendrites,

unmyelinated axons) and White Matter (myelinated axons) are the two types of

tissue seen.

ii. Motor Neuron, Cellular Features:

• Dendrite: has many receptor sites for binding chemicals messengers from

other cells.( Tortora and Derrickson, 2013)

• Soma (Cell Body): Signals from Dendrites are joined and passed on.

(Psych.athabascau.ca, 2014)

• Axon: sends nerve impulses to other neurons/muscle fibres/gland cells.

(Tortora and Derrickson, 2013)

iii. Satellite cells


• Surround the cell bodies of neurons in the PNS ganglia.

(Getbodysmart.com, 2014)


• Structural support (Tortora and Derrickson, 2013)

• Regulation of the exchange of materials between interstitial fluid and

neuronal cell bodies. (Slomianka, 2014)

Connective Tissue

i. Blood – Figure 1

Staining Technique: Leishman is used to differentiate Blood cells (Slomianka,


Structural Features: (Library Medicine Utah University, 2014)

• Erythrocytes

• Leucocytes

• Thrombocytes

ii. Tendons – Figure 2

Staining Technique: Van-Gieson’s Technique allows for distinguishing

Connective Tissue and Muscle (Medical Science – Indiana University, 2014)

Structural Features:

• Collagen

• Fibroblast nucleus (Boundless. 2014)

iii. Cartilage – Hyaline – Figure 3

Staining Technique: H and E (Slomianka, 2014)

Structural Features:

• Lacunae

• Chondrocytes

• Isogenous groups

• Territorial Matrix

• Inteterritorial matrix

Ross_ 27/2/14 8:08 PM

Epithelial Tissues

Are stained with: H and E (Histology Images, 2014)

Simple Cuboidal – Figure 4:

•Structural Features:

• Nucleus

• Lumen

• Connective tissue (Tortora and Derrickson, 2013)

Simple Columnar – Figure 5:

•Structural Features:

• Cilia/ microvilli

• Nucleus

• Connective tissue

• Basement membrane, lies between simple columnar epithelium and Connective

Tissue. (Slomianka. 2014. )

Simple Squamous – Figure 6:

•Structural Features:

• Plasma membrane

• Cytoplasm

• Nucleus (Tortora and Derrickson. 2013) Ross_ 27/2/14 8:08 PM



Boundless. 2014. Characteristics of Connective Tissue – Boundless Open Textbook.


tissue/ Viewed on the 10th of February 2014

Electron Microscp[y Science. 2014. Van-Gieson’s Method for Collagen Fibers.

http://www.emsdiasum.com/microscopy/technical/datasheet/26350.aspx Viewed on the 10th

of February 2014

Faculty of Biological Sciences, University Of Leeds. 2014. Faculty of Biological Sciences,

University of Leeds, Histology Guide | Blood.

http://www.histology.leeds.ac.uk/blood/blood_wbc.php Viewed on the 10th of February 2014

Getbodysmart.com. 2014. Satellite Cells of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap2/nervoussystem/supportcells/satellitecells/tutorial.html Vie

wed on the 11th of February 2014

Histology OLM. 2014. The Spinal Cord | histologyolm.stevegallik.org.

http://histologyolm.stevegallik.org/node/328 Viewed on the 11th of February 2014

Histology Images. 2014. Microscopic Histology Images – Epithelial Tissue.

http://www.histol.chuvashia.com/atlas-en/epithelia-en.htm Viewed on the 11th of Febuary

Interactive Physiology. 2014. Anatomy Review: Skeletal Muscle Tissue.


f viewed on the 11th of February 2014

Library Medicine Utah University. 2014. Hematopathology.

http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/HEMEHTML/HEME001.html Viewed 11th of February


Loudoun.nvcc.edu. 2014. Blood Smears.

http://loudoun.nvcc.edu/vetonline/vet131/blood_smears.htm Viewed on the 10th of February


Medical Science – Indiana University. 2014. Cell Biology & Histology A560.

http://medsci.indiana.edu/histo/docs/stn5.htm Viewed on the 11th February 2014

NYS Department of Health, Wadsworth Centre. 2014. Through the Microscope: Blood Cells.

http://www.wadsworth.org/chemheme/heme/microscope/celllist.htm Viewed on the 10th of

February 2014

Psych.athabascau.ca. 2014. Structure of the Neuron – Soma.

https://psych.athabascau.ca/html/Psych289/Biotutorials/1/soma.shtml Viewed on the 11th of

February 2014

Slomianka, L. 2014. Blue Histology – Blood.

http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/corepages/blood/blood.htm Viewed on the 10th of

February 2014

The Journal of the American Society of Haematology. 2014. Blood.

http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/site/authors/authorguide.xhtml Viewed on the 10th

of February 2014

Tortora, G. J. and Derrickson, B. 2013. Principles of anatomy & physiology. Hoboken, NJ:


Uniprot Subcellular Locations. 2014. Sarcomere.

http://www.uniprot.org/locations/SL-0313 Viewed on the 11th of February 2014

Bright Field Microscope, Preparing Tissue Samples

What is the Bright field microscope and How does it work.

Bright field microscopy is the basic type of microscopy.

Biological specimens are viewed by contrast which works through the absorption of stain by

a specimen(Microscopemaster.com, 2014). The specimen, non living, ( cells and tissues)

may not be naturally highly absorbing, so the specimen is stained so that cellular features

can be identified (Berkeley Physics, 2014). The bright field microscope works by aiming a

light towards the collector lens, here the condenser focuses the amount of light specified

through the specimen, and with staining and other techniques the specimen can be viewed

clearly through magnification. (Microscopy U – The Source for Microscopy Education, 2014)

Steps in preparing a tissue section, ready for mounting on a microscope slide and ready for staining.

• Fix your specimen, it preserves the tissue (Cuyahoga County Medical Examiner,

2014) and keeps it attached to the slide during the staining process. (Rolls and

Chapman, 2014)

• Dehydrate it (it should be washed after fixation)

• Clearing is the removal of the dehydrating agent

• Embedding: The tissue will have it’s liquid replace with Paraffin wax, making it hard

enough to be stained and used. (Man Anatomy, 2014).

• Sectioning: Tissue is sliced thinly

• Now the specimen is able to be mounted and stained.

The Haematoxylin and Eosin staining method, its purpose and the results.


• Dip blood smear in Fixer five times for one second each time. Drain off remaining


• Repeat when dipping in Red Stain

• Repeat when dipping in Blue Stain

• Wash stain with distilled water and allow to dry (VetLogicVideo, 2007)

It is used to provide Histological examination of tissue sections. Because it is charged-Based

Hematoxylin, the base will stain Basophilic parts blue (Histology University of Leeds. 2014)

(these parts are positive so they will attract a negative dye (Feinberg Northwestern

University, 2014)) and Eosin stains acidophilic parts (basic pH and are mainly Cytoplasmic,

such as protein products) pink (Fischer and Jacobson et al., 2008).


Berkeley Physics PHYS250. 2014. Berkeley PHYS250 Lecture 2 Microscopes.


Viewed on the 10th of February 2014

Cuyahoga County Medical Examiner. 2014. The Steps for Preparation of Slides – Cuyahoga

County Medical Examiner

http://medicalexaminer.cuyahogacounty.us/en-US/Steps.aspx Viewed on the 11th of

February 2014

Feinberg Northwestern University. 2014. The Science and Application of Hematoxylin and



Viewed on the 10th of February 2014

Fischer, A., Jacobson, K., Rose, J. and Zeller, R. 2008. Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining of

Tissue and Cell Sections. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols, 2008 (5), pg 4986.

Can be Viewed at : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21356829 Accessed on the 10th of

February 2014

Gill, G. W. 2014. Chapter 13 H&E Staining: Oversight and Insights.

http://www.dako.com/08066_12may10_webchapter13.pdf Viewed on the 10th of February


Histology University of Leeds. 2014. Histology Guide | What Is Histology.

http://histology.leeds.ac.uk/what-is-histology/H_and_E.php Viewed on the 11th of February


Man Anatomy. 2014. Preparation of tissue for microscopy.

http://www.mananatomy.com/histology/preparation-tissue-microscopy Viewed on the 11th of

February 2014

Microscopemaster.com. 2014. Brightfield Microscopy – Uses and

Advancements; Advantages and Disadvantages.

http://www.microscopemaster.com/brightfield-microscopy.html Viewed on the 10th of

February 2014

Microscopy U – The Source for Microscopy Education. 2014. Nikon MicroscopyU |

Fundamentals of Digital Imaging.

http://www.microscopyu.com/articles/digitalimaging/digitalintro.html Viewed on the 11th of

February 2014

Rolls, G. 2012. Performing a Hematoxylin and Eosin Stain – a Step by Step Guide.


a-step-by-step-guide/ Viewed on the 10th of February 2014

Rolls, G., Chapman, C., Rasanen, M. and Stephen Peters, D. 2014. Histology Sample

Preparation. http://www.leicabiosystems.com/pathologyleaders/topics/histology-samplepreparation/

Viewed on the 10th of February.

VetLogicVideo, 2007, Making a blood smear, http://www.vetlogic.uk.co Viewed on the 7th of

February 2014

VetLogicVideo, 2007, Staining a blood smear http://www.vetlogic.uk.co Viewed on the 7th of

February 2014