Okay guys, this is going to be the briefest overview of both Jungian and Freudian Psychoanalytic Therapies, so bear with me if you know your Freud and Jung.
Humans will continue to develop as we age and go through life stages, there are continuities as well as changes through out. People with sever mental health issues are usually stunted: we put pressure on ourselves, “I’m too old to be doing this, I should be doing ….”. This is a bad influence in my opinion as it leads to conflict and emotional distress. The transition between life stages is a process moving between biological, psychological and social stages.
Who was Freud?
v He was the founder of Psychoanalysis
v Born in Vienna of Jewish heritage
v Researched neurologist by training- found that certain disorders, blindness, deafness or hysteria (paralysis) had no physical basis: this increased his interest in Psychosomatic disorders and from here he publish papers refuting that psychosomatic disorders had a neurological basis. Modern Medicine now acknowledges biopsycosocial model of illness (mind resulting on body and vise vera)
v He investigated alternate therapies such as hypnotherapy and found it successful
v He started to self-analyse his dreams, childhood memories and family relationships – from here he formulated his theories.
Lets look at some psychosomatic symptoms
|Stress or fear of Pain||Decreased movement to reduce pain, decreased enjoyable activity||Back pain|
|Stress||Helicobacter Pylori||Peptic Ulcer|
|Stress||Immune reaction, Infection?||IBS|
|Stress/Shyness||Opiates, Antinarcotics||Shy bladder|
|Stress/ worry||Physical sensations||Hypochondriasis|
Treatment: The symptoms are real so relief treatment would be beneficial but it will not remove the cause. What happens if you continue to just treat the symptoms: can foster a dependency + Hopelessness + increased stress +Economic Burden. (People want immediate results)
Freudian Psychoanalytic Therapies:
Freud was a pioneer of the concept of what happens to us in early childhood affects us by who we become and chose to be. Lets look at the Theory of Personality Development in childhood: Psychosexual Stages:
- 0-1 years is the Oral Stage
- Weaning from the breast and bottle. The infant requires basic nurturing
- Later in life : Greediness or fears that there wont be enough, mistrust of others, rejection of love, inability to form intimate relationships (if we cant have our needs met as a child it can turn into something else)
- 1-3 years is the Anal Stage
- Learning independence: Toilet training. Accepting personal power: ability to express rage and aggression
- Parental Influence has a strong influence
- 3-6 years is the Phallic Stage
- Oedipal Crisis – interest in their own bodies, curiosity towards sexuality in both self and others
- Conflict can arise out of a sexual desire for parent of opposite sex and competition with parent of the same sex (Oedipus and Electra complexes) : It is very important how parents respond to child’s emerging sexuality
- 6-12 years is the Latency Stage
- Expanding social contacts, friendship focused outside of immediate family
- Tranquil period of time
- Refinement of self-concept and socialisation.
- 12-18 years is the Genital Stage
- Re awaking of Phallic stage- continues until death in various forms
- Sexual energy is invested in socially acceptable activities
- Intimate relationships
- 18-35+ years is the Genital Stage
- Mature Adult (mostly) able to work and love
- Freedom from parental influences
Developmental Problems: These are made in the first 6 years of life – they are foundations which personality is built on later on in life.
v Dealing with negative feeling
v Developing a positive acceptance of sexuality
( feelings of security and feelings of love. We can deal with these acceptably)
Erikson’s Psychoanalytic Stages:
v 1963 Erik Erikson developed a model of human development of a lifetime, it is built on Freud’s Psychosexual Theory. It looks at the impact of socialisation on healthy personality development.
v It is made up of 8 stages, each with their own crisis. Positive Resolutions: make own decision, don’t need reassurance. Negative Resolutions: person will not cope with later crisis well, they pick up parents behaviour, negative eating habits= eating disorder.
v Stage 1: First Year of life – Trust vs Mistrust : they will either learn to trust that they will have their needs met or will mistrust the world, is my world supportive and predictable?
v Stage 2: Second and Third year of life – Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt: Children learn to make choices and exercise will or they aren’t allowed to initiate and doubt they can do things, can I do things myself or must I always rely on others?
v Stage 3: (years 3-6) Initiative vs Guilt – Children learn to do things themselves or they aren’t allowed to initiate and will feel guilty at all attempts at independence, Am I good or bad?
v Stage 4: (years 6 – puberty) Industry vs Inferiority – Children develop curiosity and are eager to learn or feel inferior and loose interest in tasks before them ,Am I worthless or am I competent?
v Stage 5: (Adolescence)Identity vs Identity confusion – Adolecences see themselves as unique or they become confused about what they want from life
v Stage 6: (early adulthood) Intimacy vs Isolation – young adults become abelt o commit themselves to one person or develop a sense of isolation and feel like they have no one else in the world but themselves
v Stage 7: (middle adulthood) Generatively vs Self-Absorption – Adults are willing to care for children and devote themselves to work and the common good or become self centered and inavtive
v Stage 8: (late adulthood) Integrity vs Despair – As life comes to a close, they will reflect and accept death with grace knowing they lived a good life or they will despair for unaccomplished goals
Freud: Levels of Consciousness
Freud believed that people as individuals are generally not aware of the underlying reason for their behaviour, he assumes that the mental activity occurs at 3 levels.
- The Conscious Level – thinking of it now, awareness, perception of real time
- The Precocious Level – subconscious: stored knowledge you have even when you are not thinking of it but association finds it, don’t know we know it until we need of it or think of it. All capable of being brought to the conscious level like a phone number.
- The Unconscious Level – everything- people do things but don’t know why. It stores all memories, experiences, repressed material, painful things are stored here as repressed memories as protection. It also stores all of our irrational wishes, shameful urges, fears, aggressive feelings and anxiety producing thoughts : because they threaten us we keep them in an unconscious mind. The unconscious mind breaking through can be seen as:
- Slips of the tongue
- Post hypnotic suggestions
- Free association
- Dreams – when we dream the feelings are distorted so we will not recognise them
Stuff manifests deep within us, the aim of psychoanalytic therapy is to make the unconscious motives conscious – only then can the individual exercise choice.
Structure of Personality:
v The Id
- This is the primary source of psychic energy
- Instinct – unconscious
- Contains the basic drives : food, water, sex and warmth – instinct
- Lacks organisation – is infantile
- Demanding, insistent, illogical, irrational, amoral
- Glutton, Selfish,
- no direct contact with reality
- Ruled by pleasure principle: its function is to reduce tension, avoid pains, and gaining pleasure.
- Immediate gratification, doesn’t care about consequence
- Like a devil on your shoulder
v The Ego
- Mediator between id and superego
- Decision maker
- Emerges with physical maturity
- Governs and regulates the personality
- Thinks , seat of intelligence and rationality
v The Superego
- Think of the angle on your shoulder
- Strives for what it morally right
- Parent influence
- Represents ideal rather than real: worries about judgment and what others will think.
- Enables person to fit in with society
- Regulates, but can be just as damaging as id
- Perfectionism, not always positive
All three are always in conflict, the more developed the superego the greater the internal conflict that leads to anxiety.
Jungian Psychoanalytic Therapies:
Carl Jung: 1875-1961
v Focuses on midlife opposed to Freud who focused on childhood.
v Moved away from traditional Freudian theories towards more creative and symbolic ways of looking at personality.
v Experiences are kept in a reservoir as a species, all born with knowledge- instinct: but we are not conscious of it.
v This shared knowledge influences how we experience: experiences, emotions and behaviours
- De’j’a vu,
- love at first sight
- recognition of certain symbols
we didn’t learn it, we just pick up on it. It is ingrained in us. Similar things regardless of what country we are from.
Jung’s Archetypes: collective unconscious (CuC)
v Mother Archetype: built in ability to recognise a certain relationship of mothering
v Persona: mask or facade we wear to protect ourselves
v Animus/ Anima: biological and psychological aspect of masculinity and feminity which co exist in both sexes – yin and yang
v Shadow: our dark side – socially reprehensible thoughts, feelings and actions
v Hero, Wise Old Man, Trickster
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