Skeleton – Joints

Skeleton – Joints

I really should have enjoyed Joints way more that what I did as a headache felt like I was being repeatedly stabbed… and I have noticed these notes are probably the least detailed I have done so far. But the essentials are there. Enjoy J


Joints hold bones in place but allow movement, it is the surface between two bones.

Kinesiology : The Study of Motion

Arthrology: The Study of Joints


Joints are classified regarding whether or not they have the synovial joint cavity and the type of connective tissue.


v  No movement =synathrosis

v  Limited movement = amphiarthrosis

v  Free movement = diarthrosis

v  Fibrous Joint – synovial cavity absent

  • Bones held by fiberous connective tissue, (think the gap between the tibia and fibula, that is filled with connective tissue)
  • Amphiathrosis

v  Cartilaginous – synovial cavity absent

  • Are divided into Synchondroses which are Synathrosis, and Symphyes which is Ampiarthrosis

v  Synovial – synovial cavity present

  • Sits between the two bones
  • Diarthrosis
  • Cartilage = absorbs shock, allows the bones not to wear away
  • Cartilage not covered by the synvial joint




Synovial Joints:

v  Planar Joint:

  • Side to side and back to forth movement
  • Bone surface is flat or slight curve
  • Ligaments prevent the rotation

v  Hinge Joint

  • Convex bone surface fits into concave bone surface
  • Flexion, extension and hyperextention
  • Knee, elbow

v  Pivot Joint

  • Circular like a disk
  • Rotation on a longitudinal axis
  •  (turning head side to side – no)

v  Condyloid/ Ellipsoidal Joint

  • Oval shaped projection fits into oval shaped depression.
  • Abduct – away from body, adduct – towards body.  up flex and down extend
  • (wrist)

v  Saddle Joint

  • One bone fits as a person would in a saddle, the saddle being another bone
  • Allows thumb across palm, repositioning is when thumb returns

v  Ball and Socket Joint:

  • Ball fits into cup depression
  •  flexion and extension (forward and back), Adduction and Abduction (side towards and side away)
  • Rotation
  • Hip and shoulder joint


Sprain Vs Strain

v  A Sprain is a twist of the joint that tears the ligament, can damage nearby blood vessels, muscles or tendons.

v  Swelling, haemorrhage of blood vessels

v  A Strain is less serious, either over stretched or not fully torn muscle


Bursae and Tendon Sheaths:

v  Bursae are fluid filled scals that reduce friction

v  Tendon Sheaths are essentially a tube version of Bursae that wrap around tendons and joins muscle to the bone.


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